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Un domnitor bucureştean, Mihnea-Mihail Voievod, în lupta pentru independenţa poporului român

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Excerpt During the Middle Age, the historical conditions were unfavourable to the formation of one unitary Romanian state. Therefore, three Romanian principalities came into being: Wallachia, Transylvania and Moldavia. Throughout centuries there were relationships among these principalities, one of their most important side being connected with the struggle for independence, against the Ottoman Empire.
The present paper deals with one of these actions which took place at the beginning of the 2nd half of the 17th century and which was initiated by Mihnea III Michael the prince of Wallachia.
Like many of his predecessors, Mihnea-Michael ascended to the throne of Bucharest, in 1658.
From the very beginning, Mihnea adopted an attitude which revealed his intentions to fight against the Turks and his wish to be Michael the Brave's true successor. In May 30, 1658, Mihnea III was crowned according to the Byzantine tradition, by patriarch Macarie of Antioch, in Bucharest, and took the name Michael.
He took measures in order to strengthen the country for the struggle for national independence. As Michael the Brave, Mihnea-Michael made endeavors to bring to his side the other two principalities against the Ottoman Empire. Consequently, he concluded an alliance treaty with George Rakoczi II, the prince of Transylvania, supporting together Constantin Şerban’s ascendance to the throne ol Moldavia. On the other hand, Mihnea-Michael and Rakoczi carried on an intense diplomatic activity to get the support of Christiendom. The fall of 1659, became the starting point of the fight against the Turks. As Michael the Brave had
done in 1594, Mihnea Michael killed the Turcks settled in Wallachia at that time and attacked the Turkish tours on the banks of the Danube. In November 23, 1659, he won a brilliant victory at Frăţeşti. At the same time, his allies of Moldavia and Transylvania were decisively defeated, thus the opportunity for Wallachia's surrounding being created. Therefore, Mihnea was compelled to withdraw to Transylvania where he died in April 1660.
There are several causes of this defeat: some of the princes of the Romanian principalities did not adhere to the coalition against the Ottoman Empire, the Ottoman Empire consolidated its position during the Köpülü viziers ruling, the Christian powers did not support the fight against the Turks, the less favorable internal situation of the Romanian principalities.
Although the action of Mihnea-Michael and his allies had not the same ampleness as Michael the Brave's one the 1659 fight against the Ottoman Empire is a most daring act, a page of heroism in the history of the Romanian people.
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